# lps2lts¶

## Manual page for lps2lts¶

### Usage¶

lps2lts   [OPTION]... [INFILE [OUTFILE]]

### Description¶

Generate an LTS from the LPS in INFILE and save the result to OUTFILE. If INFILE is not supplied, stdin is used. If OUTFILE is not supplied, the LTS is not stored.

If the ‘jittyc’ rewriter is used, then the MCRL2_COMPILEREWRITER environment variable (default value: ‘mcrl2compilerewriter’) determines the script that compiles the rewriter, and MCRL2_COMPILEDIR (default value: ‘.’) determines where temporary files are stored.

Note that lps2lts can deliver multiple transitions with the same label betweenany pair of states. If this is not desired, such transitions can be removed byapplying a strong bisimulation reducton using for instance the tool ltsconvert.

The format of OUTFILE is determined by its extension (unless it is specified by an option). The supported formats are:

‘aut’ for the Aldebaran format (CADP), ‘dot’ for the GraphViz format (no longer supported as input format), ‘fsm’ for the Finite State Machine format, or ‘lts’ for the mCRL2 LTS format

If the jittyc rewriter is used, then the MCRL2_COMPILEREWRITER environment variable (default value: mcrl2compilerewriter) determines the script that compiles the rewriter, and MCRL2_COMPILEDIR (default value: ‘.’) determines where temporary files are stored. Note that lps2lts can deliver multiple transitions with the same label between any pair of states. If this is not desired, such transitions can be removed by applying a strong bisimulation reducton using for instance the tool ltsconvert.

### Command line options¶

-aNAMES , --actionNAMES

detect and report actions in the transitions system that have action names from NAMES, a comma-separated list. This is for instance useful to find (or prove the absence) of an action error. A message is printed for every occurrence of one of these action names. With the -t flag traces towards these actions are generated

-b[NUM] , --bit-hash[NUM]

use bit hashing to store states and store at most NUM states. This means that instead of keeping a full record of all states that have been visited, a bit array is used that indicate whether or not a hash of a state has been seen before. Although this means that this option may cause states to be mistaken for others (because they are mapped to the same hash), it can be useful to explore very large LTSs that are otherwise not explorable. The default value for NUM is approximately 2*10^8 (this corresponds to about 25MB of memory)

--cached

use enumeration caching techniques to speed up state space generation.

-c[NAME] , --confluence[NAME]

apply prioritization of transitions with the action label NAME.(when no NAME is supplied (i.e., ‘-c’) priority is given to the action ‘ctau’. To give priority to to tau use the flag -ctau. Note that if the linear process is not tau-confluent, the generated state space is necessarily branching bisimilar to the state space of the lps. The generation algorithm that is used does not require the linear process to be tau convergent.

-F , --divergence

detect divergences (i.e. for every state with a divergence (=tau loop) a message is printed). The algorithm to detect the divergences is linear for every state, so state space exploration becomes quadratic with this option on, causing a state space exploration to become slow when this option is enabled.

-yBOOL , --dummyBOOL

replace free variables in the LPS with dummy values based on the value of BOOL: ‘yes’ (default) or ‘no’

--error-trace

if an error occurs during exploration, save a trace to the state that could not be explored

--init-tsizeNUM

set the initial size of the internally used hash tables (default is 10000)

-lNUM , --maxNUM

explore at most NUM states

-mNAMES , --multiactionNAMES

detect and report multiactions in the transitions system from NAMES, a comma-separated list. Works like -a, except that multi-actions are matched exactly, including data parameters.

--no-info

do not add state information to OUTFILEWithout this option lps2lts adds state vector to the LTS. This option causes this information to be discarded and states are only indicated by a sequence number. Explicit state information is useful for visualisation purposes, for instance, but can cause the OUTFILE to grow considerably. Note that this option is implicit when writing in the AUT format.

-oFORMAT , --outFORMAT

save the output in the specified FORMAT

--prune

use summand pruning to speed up state space generation.

-QNUM , --qlimitNUM

limit enumeration of quantifiers to NUM variables. (Default NUM=1000, NUM=0 for unlimited).

-rNAME , --rewriterNAME

use rewrite strategy NAME:

jitty

jitty rewriting

jittyc

compiled jitty rewriting

jittyp

jitty rewriting with prover

-sNAME , --strategyNAME

explore the state space using strategy NAME:

d, depth

depth-first search

p, prioritized

prioritize single actions on its first argument being of sort Nat where only those actions with the lowest value for this parameter are selected. E.g. if there are actions a(3) and b(4), a(3) remains and b(4) is skipped. Actions without a first parameter of sort Nat and multactions with more than one action are always chosen (option is experimental)

q, rprioritized

prioritize actions on its first argument being of sort Nat (see option –prioritized), and randomly select one of these to obtain a prioritized random simulation (option is experimental)

r, random

random simulation. Out of all next states one is chosen at random independently of whether this state has already been observed. Consequently, random simultation only terminates when a deadlocked state is encountered.

--suppress

in verbose mode, do not print progress messages indicating the number of visited states and transitions. For large state spaces the number of progress messages can be quite horrendous. This feature helps to suppress those. Other verbose messages, such as the total number of states explored, just remain visible.

--timings[FILE]

append timing measurements to FILE. Measurements are written to standard error if no FILE is provided

--todo-maxNUM

keep at most NUM states in todo lists; this option is only relevant for breadth-first search, where NUM is the maximum number of states per level, and for depth first search, where NUM is the maximum depth

-t[NUM] , --trace[NUM]

Write a shortest trace to each state that is reached with an action from NAMES from option –action, is a deadlock detected with –deadlock, or is a divergence detected with –divergence to a file. No more than NUM traces will be written. If NUM is not supplied the number of traces is unbounded.For each trace that is to be written a unique file with extension .trc (trace) will be created containing a shortest trace from the initial state to the deadlock state. The traces can be pretty printed and converted to other formats using tracepp.

-u , --unused-data

do not remove unused parts of the data specification

#### Standard options¶

-q , --quiet

do not display warning messages

-v , --verbose

display short intermediate messages

-d , --debug

display detailed intermediate messages

--log-levelLEVEL

display intermediate messages up to and including level

-h , --help

display help information

--version

display version information

### Author¶

Muck van Weerdenburg